| Bombay Hindi ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Bombay Hindi, is a variant of Hindustani spoken in Mumbai.〔(Dialects of Hindi )〕 Colloquially, the younger generation of native speakers uses the term Bhindi ((ヒンディー語:भिंदी)) to refer to the local dialect as a vernacular portmanteau for “Bombay Hindi”. The dialect incorporates words and pronunciations from Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, English, and bits from other languages of India. Linguistically, the predominant substratum influence on ''Mumbai'' is Marathi native people, reflecting Mumbai's location in a wider Marathi-speaking area.
While many such local dialects have evolved in cosmopolitan cities around the world, Bombay Hindi is widely known throughout India as a result of its frequent use in Bollywood movies. Initially, this dialect was used to represent crooks and uncouth characters as, to quote film critic Shoma A. Chatterji, "Indian films have the unique quality of different characters speaking different varieties of Hindi according to their social status, their caste, communal identity, education, profession, financial status, etc. () The villain's goons, speak in a special vulgarised, Bambaiya Hindi concocted specifically to typify such screen characters in Hindi cinema.".〔See 'The Language Detail' in Shoma A. Chatterji's paper, (The Culturespecific Use of Sound in India Cinema ), presented in 1999.〕 Lately, however, Bambaiya Hindi has become popular and prominent, particular with the success of the Munnabhai movies, in which the lead characters - being members of the Mumbai criminal underworld - speak entirely in this dialect.〔The Hindu newspaper, May 11, 2007. ''Chronicles of the City''. (Read online ).〕
Despite this increase in popularity, this dialect has its critics, and is sometimes seen as being disrespectful and vulgar.〔DNA, ''Verbal assault of Bambaiya Hindi'', December 12, 2006. (Read online ).〕
Among the more prominent neologisms which originated in Bambaiyya Hindi but have spread throughout India are the words (bindaas ) (from Marathi (Bin + Dhast = Without Fear, meaning 'relaxed'; this word was incorporated into the Oxford English Dictionary in 2005〔Indian Express, August 10, 2005, '' 'Bindaas' finds its way to the Oxford Dictionary''. (Read online ).〕) and Gandhigiri (invented in the movie ''Lage Raho Munna Bhai'', a portmanteau of Gandhi and ''-giri'', which is similar to the English 'ism'(as in Gandhi-ism), though slightly more informal).
Bollywood has also incorporated many Marathi words in Hindi like Thaska, Wakda, Porgi, Navri, Navrai. Many Hindi songs have few Marathi words added.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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