A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a needle, or via fingerprick. Multiple tests for specific blood components (such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test) are often grouped together into one test panel called a blood panel or blood work. Blood tests〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.medicalassistantonlineprograms.org/blood-panel/ )〕 are often used in health care to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as disease, mineral content, pharmaceutical drug effectiveness, and organ function. Typical clinical blood panels include a basic metabolic panel or a complete blood count. Blood tests are also used in drug tests to detect drug abuse. In some of the United States, a blood test is required before marriage; historically, this was previously true in more states.〔(Are blood tests still required before marriage? )〕
On 30 October 2015, researchers at the VUMC Cancer Center Amsterdam reported developing a blood test that, from a single drop of blood, can diagnose cancer with a probability of 97%, and about 6-8% probability of a false diagnosis, in healthy patients.
Venipuncture is useful as it is a minimally invasive way to obtain cells and extracellular fluid (plasma) from the body for analysis. Blood flows throughout the body, acting as a medium which provides oxygen and nutrients to tissues and carries waste products back to the excretory systems for disposal. Coincidentally, the state of the bloodstream affects, or is affected by, many medical conditions. For these reasons, blood tests are the most commonly performed medical tests.〔(【引用サイトリンク】 title=Venipuncture - the extraction of blood using a needle and syringe )〕
If only a few drops of blood are needed, a fingerstick is performed instead of drawing blood from a vein.
Phlebotomists, laboratory practitioners and nurses are those charged with patient blood extraction. However, in special circumstances, and emergency situations, paramedics and physicians sometimes extract blood. Also, respiratory therapists are trained to extract arterial blood to examine arterial blood gases.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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