Veneration of Mary in Roman Catholicism
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Roman Catholic veneration of Mary, Mother of Jesus includes prayer, visual arts, poetry and music devoted to Mary.〔("Santa Maria", ''Time'', March 21, 1927 )〕〔(Doniger, Wendy. ''Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions'', p.696, 1999, ISBN 0-87779-044-2 )〕〔(Elders, Willem. ''Symbolic scores: studies in the music of the Renaissance'', p.151, 1997, ISBN 90-04-09970-0 )〕〔
(Miles, Margaret M., ''Maiden and mother: Prayers, hymns, devotions, and songs to the Beloved Virgin Mary Throughout the Year'', p. vii, 2001,ISBN 0-86012-305-7 )〕 Popes have encouraged it, while also taking steps to reform some manifestations of it. The Holy See has insisted on the importance of distinguishing "true from false devotion, and authentic doctrine from its deformations by excess or defect".〔(Congregation for Catholic Education, "The Virgin Mary in Intellectual and Spiritual Formation" (25 March 1988), 34 )〕 There are significantly more titles, feasts and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than in other Christian traditions.〔Flinn, Frank K., ''Encyclopedia of Catholicism'', J. Gordon Melton 2007 ISBN 0-8160-5455-X pp. 443–444〕
Belief in the incarnation of God the Son through Mary is the basis for calling her the Mother of God. This expression is found in prayers such as the ''Sub tuum praesidium'' dated from the third or no later than the fourth century,〔Hauke, Manfred (2008). ''The Mother of God in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons'' ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4 page 178〕〔Calkins, Arthur Burton (2008). ''Marian Consecration and Entrustment in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons'' ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4 page 728〕 and was declared a dogma at the Council of Ephesus in 431. At the Second Vatican Council and in Pope John Paul II's encyclical ''Redemptoris Mater'', she is spoken of also as Mother of the Church.
Growth of Roman Catholic veneration of Mary and Mariology has often come, not from official declarations, but from Marian writings of the saints, popular devotion, and at times reported Marian apparitions. The Holy See approves only a few of the many such reported apparitions as worthy of belief, the latest being with regard to an apparition already approved at diocesan level as far back as 1665. Further pious veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary encouraged by Popes are exhibited in the Canonical coronations granted to popular Marian images venerated in a particular locality.
Marian Movements and Societies with millions of members have arisen from belief in events such as Akita, Fátima and Lourdes and other reasons.〔(【引用サイトリンク】 University of Dayton on Marian Organisations )〕
==From Christ to Mary in the Roman Catholic tradition==
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