The Black Hills (''Ȟe Sápa'' in Lakota, ''Moʼȯhta-voʼhonáaeva'' in Cheyenne, ''awaxaawi shiibisha'' in Hidatsa) are a small, isolated mountain range rising from the Great Plains of North America in western South Dakota and extending into Wyoming, United States. Harney Peak, which rises to , is the range's highest summit.〔
〕 The Black Hills encompass the Black Hills National Forest. The name "Black Hills" is a translation of the Lakota ''Pahá Sápa''. The hills were so-called because of their dark appearance from a distance, as they were covered in trees.〔(Black Hills National Forest - Frequently Asked Questions )〕
Native Americans have a long history in the Black Hills. After conquering the Cheyenne in 1776, the Lakota took over the territory of the Black Hills, which became central to their culture. In 1868, the U.S. government signed the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, exempting the Black Hills from all white settlement forever. However, when European Americans discovered gold there in 1874, as a result of George Armstrong Custer's Black Hills Expedition, miners swept into the area in a gold rush. The US government reassigned the Lakota, against their wishes, to other reservations in western South Dakota. Unlike most of South Dakota, the Black Hills were settled by European Americans primarily from population centers to the west and south of the region, as miners flocked there from earlier gold boom locations in Colorado and Montana.
As the economy of the Black Hills has shifted from natural resources (mining and timber), the hospitality and tourism industries have grown to take its place. Locals tend to divide the Black Hills into two areas: "The Southern Hills" and "The Northern Hills". The Southern Hills is home to Mount Rushmore National Memorial, Wind Cave National Park, Jewel Cave National Monument, Harney Peak (the highest point in the United States east of the Rockies), Custer State Park (the largest state park in South Dakota, and one of the largest in the US), the Crazy Horse Memorial (the largest sculpture in the world), and the Mammoth Site in Hot Springs, the world’s largest mammoth research facility. Attractions in the Northern Hills include Spearfish Canyon, historic Deadwood, and the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally, held each August. The first Rally was held on August 14, 1938 and the 65th Rally in 2005 saw more than 550,000 bikers visit the Black Hills. It is a key part of the regional economy. Devils Tower National Monument, located in the Wyoming Black Hills, is an important nearby attraction and was the United States's first national monument.
Native Americans have inhabited the area since at least 7000 BC. The Arikara arrived by 1500 AD, followed by the Cheyenne, Crow, Kiowa and Pawnee. The Lakota (also known as Sioux) arrived from Minnesota in the 18th century and drove out the other tribes, who moved west.〔"(The Buffalo War )". PBS: Public Broadcasting Service.〕 They claimed the land, which they called ''HeSapa'' (Black Mountains). The mountains commonly became known as the Black Hills.
François and Louis de La Vérendrye probably travelled near the Black Hills in 1743.〔"(History of the Black Hills )". U.S. National Park Service.〕 After the public discovery of gold in the 1870s, European Americans increasingly encroached on Lakota territory. The conflict over control of the region sparked the Black Hills War, the last major Indian War on the Great Plains. The 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie had previously confirmed the Lakota's ownership of the Teton Sioux mountain range. Both the Sioux and Cheyenne claimed rights to the land, saying that in their cultures, it was considered the ''axis mundi'', or sacred center of the world.
Although rumors of gold in the Black Hills had circulated for decades (see Thoen Stone and Pierre-Jean De Smet), it was not until 1874 that Brevet Major General George Armstrong Custer of the 7th US Cavalry led an expedition there and discovered gold in French Creek. An official announcement of gold was made by the newspaper reporters accompanying the expedition. The following year, the Newton-Jenney Party conducted the first detailed survey of the Black Hills. The surveyor for the party, Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy, was the first European American to ascend to the top of Harney Peak. This highest point in the Black Hills is 7242 feet above sea level.
During the 1875–1878 gold rush, thousands of miners went to the Black Hills; in 1880, the area was the most densely populated part of the Dakota Territory. There were three large towns in the Northern Hills: Deadwood, Central City, and Lead. Around these were groups of smaller gold camps, towns, and villages. Hill City and Custer City sprang up in the Southern Hills. Railroads were quickly constructed to the previously remote area. From 1880 on, the gold mines yielded about $4,000,000 annually, and the silver mines about $3,000,000 annually.
Following the defeat of the Lakota and their Cheyenne and Arapaho allies in 1876, the United States took control of the region, in violation of the Treaty of Fort Laramie. The Lakota never accepted the validity of the US appropriation. They continue to try to reclaim the property.
On July 23, 1980, in ''United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians'', the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Black Hills were illegally taken and that remuneration of the initial offering price plus interest — nearly $106 million — be paid. The Lakota refused the settlement as they wanted the Black Hills returned to them. The money remains in an interest-bearing account, which now amounts to over $757 million, but the Lakota still refuse to take the money. They believe that accepting the settlement would allow the U.S. Government to justify taking ownership of the Black Hills.
In 2012, United Nations Special Rapporteur James Anaya conducted a 12-day tour of Native Americans' land, to determine how the United States is faring on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, endorsed by the administration of President Barack Obama in 2010. Mr. Anaya met with tribes in seven states on reservations and in urban areas, as well as with members of the Obama administration and the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs. Mr. Anaya tentatively recommended the return of lands to some tribes, including the Black Hills to the Sioux. His full official report with recommendations is due in September 2012.〔(BBC News - UN official calls for US return of native land )〕〔(Reuters - U.S. must heal native people's wounds, return lands: U.N. )〕〔(The Guardian - US should return stolen land to Indian tribes, says United Nations )〕〔(Daily Mail - Could the U.S. give up Mount Rushmore? Iconic site is on list of 'sacred land' UN says must be returned to Native Americans )〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』