| Beam (structure) ： ウィキペディア英語版|
A beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. The bending force induced into the material of the beam as a result of the external loads, own weight, span and external reactions to these loads is called a bending moment. Beams are characterized by their profile (shape of cross-section), their length, and their material.
Beams are traditionally descriptions of building or civil engineering structural elements, but smaller structures such as truck or automobile frames, machine frames, and other mechanical or structural systems contain beam structures that are designed and analyzed in a similar fashion.
== Overview ==
Historically beams were squared timbers but are also metal, stone, or combinations of wood and metal〔"Beam" def. 1. Whitney, William Dwight, and Benjamin E. Smith. ''The Century dictionary and cyclopedia''. vol, 1. New York: Century Co., 1901. 487. Print.〕 such as a flitch beam. Beams generally carry vertical gravitational forces but can also be used to carry horizontal loads (e.g., loads due to an earthquake or wind or in tension to resist rafter thrust as a tie beam or (usually) compression as a collar beam). The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns, walls, or girders, which then transfer the force to adjacent structural compression members. In light frame construction joists may rest on beams.
In carpentry a beam is called a plate as in a sill plate or wall plate, beam as in a summer beam or dragon beam.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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