The Axis powers ((ドイツ語:Achsenmächte), (日本語:枢軸国) ''Sūjikukoku'', (イタリア語:Potenze dell'Asse)), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not coordinate their activity.
The Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany, Italy and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936. Mussolini declared on November 1 that all other European countries would from then on rotate on the Rome-Berlin axis, thus creating the term "Axis".〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Axis )〕 The almost simultaneous second step was the signing in November 1936 of the Anti-Comintern Pact, an anti-communist treaty between Germany and Japan. Italy joined the Pact in 1937. The "Rome–Berlin Axis" became a military alliance in 1939 under the so-called "Pact of Steel", with the Tripartite Pact of 1940 leading to the integration of the military aims of Germany and its two treaty-bound allies.
At its zenith during World War II, the Axis presided over territories that occupied large parts of Europe, North Africa, and East Asia. There were no three-way summit meetings and cooperation and coordination was minimal, with a bit more between Germany and Italy. The war ended in 1945 with the defeat of the Axis powers and the dissolution of their alliance. As in the case of the Allies, membership of the Axis was fluid, with some nations switching sides or changing their degree of military involvement over the course of the war.
==Origins and creation==
(詳細はBenito Mussolini in September 1923, when he wrote in the preface to Roberto Suster's ''Germania Repubblica'' that "there is no doubt that in this moment the axis of European history passes through Berlin" (''non v'ha dubbio che in questo momento l'asse della storia europea passa per Berlino'').〔Martin-Dietrich Glessgen and Günter Holtus, eds., ''Genesi e dimensioni di un vocabolario etimologico'', Lessico Etimologico Italiano: Etymologie und Wortgeschichte des Italienischen (Ludwig Reichert, 1992), p. 63.〕 At the time he was seeking an alliance with the Weimar Republic against Yugoslavia and France in the dispute over the Free State of Fiume.〔D. C. Watt, "The Rome–Berlin Axis, 1936–1940: Myth and Reality", ''The Review of Politics'', 22: 4 (1960), pp. 530–31.〕
The term was used by Hungary's prime minister Gyula Gömbös when advocating an alliance of Hungary with Germany and Italy in the early 1930s. Gömbös' efforts did effect the Italo-Hungarian Rome Protocols, but his sudden death in 1936 while negotiating with Germany in Munich and the arrival of Kálmán Darányi, his successor, ended Hungary's involvement in pursuing a trilateral axis. Contentious negotiations between the Italian foreign minister, Galeazzo Ciano, and the German ambassador, Ulrich von Hassell, resulted in a Nineteen-Point Protocol, signed by Ciano and his German counterpart, Konstantin von Neurath, in 1936. When Mussolini publicly announced the signing on 1 November, he proclaimed the creation of a Rome–Berlin axis.〔
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