|conventional_long_name = Austria-Hungary
|region = Central Europe
|era= New Imperialism / First World War
|date_start = 1 March
|date_end = 11 November
|p1 = Austrian Empire
|flag_p1 = Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg
|s1 = Republic of German-Austria
|s2 = Hungarian Democratic Republic
|s3 = First Czechoslovak Republic
|s4 = West Ukrainian People's Republic
|s5 = Second Polish Republic
|s6 = Kingdom of Romania
|s7 = State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
|s8 = Banat, Bačka and Baranja
|s9 = Kingdom of Italy
|flag_s1 = Flag of Austria.svg
|flag_s2 = Flag of Hungary (1918-1919; 3-2 aspect ratio).svg
|flag_s3 = Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
|flag_s4 = Flag of the Ukranian State.svg
|flag_s5 = Flag of Poland.svg
|flag_s6 = Flag of Romania.svg
|flag_s7 = Flag of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.svg
|flag_s8 = State Flag of Serbia (1882-1918).svg
|flag_s9 = Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg
|image_flag = Flag of Austria-Hungary 1869-1918.svg
|flag_type = Civil Ensign
|flag = List of Austrian flags
|image_coat = Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria.svg
|symbol_type = Imperial & Royal Coat of arms
|image_map = Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1914).svg
|image_map_caption = The Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1914.
|national_motto = ''Indivisibiliter ac Inseparabiliter''
"Indivisible and Inseparable"
|national_anthem = ''Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser''
"God save Emperor Francis"
|common_languages = Official:
German and Hungarian〔Fisher, Gilman. (''The Essentials of Geography for School Year 1888–1889'', p. 47 ). New England Publishing Company (Boston), 1888. Accessed 20 August 2014.〕
|religion = Predominantly Roman Catholicism.〔
Also Eastern Orthodoxy, Calvinism, Judaism, Lutheranism,〔 and (after 1908) Sunni Islam
|capital = Vienna (main capital)〔
|largest_city = Vienna= 1,623,538 people Budapest= 1,612,902 people
|government_type = Constitutional monarchy,
Personal union (through dual monarchy)
|title_leader = Emperor-King
|leader1 = Francis Joseph I
|year_leader1 = 1867–1916
|leader2 = Charles I & IV
|year_leader2 = 1916–1918
|representative1 = Friedrich von Beust (first)
|representative2 = Heinrich Lammasch (last)
|year_representative1 = 1867
|year_representative2 = 1918
|title_representative = Minister-President
|deputy1 = Gyula Andrássy (first)
|deputy2 = János Hadik (last)
|year_deputy1 = 1867–1871
|year_deputy2 = 1918
|title_deputy = Prime Minister
|legislature = Imperial Council,
Diet of Hungary
|house1 = Herrenhaus,
House of Magnates
|house1_type = Upper Chamber
|house2 = Abgeordnetenhaus,
House of Representatives
|house2_type = Lower Chamber
|stat_area1 = 676615
|stat_area2 = 681727
|stat_pop1 = 52800000
|stat_year1 = 1914
|stat_year2 = 1918
|event_start =1867 Compromise
|event_post = Dissolution treaties
|date_post= in 1919 and in 1920
|event1 = Czechoslovak indep.
|date_event1 = 28 October 1918
|event2 = State of SCS indep.
|date_event2 = 29 October 1918
|event3 = Vojvodina lost to Serbia
|date_event3 = 25 November 1918
|currency = Gulden
Krone (from 1892)
| footnote_a = Treaty of Saint-Germain signed 10 September 1919 and the Treaty of Trianon signed 4 June 1920.
Austria-Hungary ((ドイツ語:Österreich-Ungarn); (ハンガリー語:Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia)), also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies (Austria and Hungary), and one autonomous region: Croatia–Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated its own compromise (''Nagodba'') with Hungary, in 1868. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. The Compromise required regular renewal, as did the customs union between the two components of the union. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational realm and one of the world's great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at ,〔 and the third-most populous (after Russia and the German Empire). The Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States, Germany, and Britain.〔Schulze, Max-Stephan. ''Engineering and Economic Growth: The Development of Austria-Hungary's Machine-Building Industry in the Late Nineteenth Century'', p. 295. Peter Lang (Frankfurt), 1996.〕
After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule〔Minahan, James. (''Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States'', p. 48 ).〕 until it was fully annexed in 1908, provoking a diplomatic crisis among the other powers.〔"Bosnia–Herzegovina" in the ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 11th ed. 1911.〕 Part of the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, a province of the Ottoman Empire, was also under joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia.〔Anderson, Frank Maloy and Amos Shartle Hershey, (''Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa 1870-1914.- The Austrian occupation of Novibazar, 1878-1909'' )〕
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I. It was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed an armistice at Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The Hungarian Kingdom and the Austrian Republic were treated as its successors ''de jure'', while the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the Czechoslovak Republic, the Republic of Poland and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, respectively, was also recognized by the victorious powers.
==Structure and name==
The realm's full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen.
German: ''ドイツ語:Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone''
The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria〔 over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania)〔 and as King of Hungary〔 over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).〔 Each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs (principally foreign relations and defence).〔
Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Hungary, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures (see: Polish Autonomy in Galicia and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement).
The division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This also meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.〔 〕
The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, even after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804.〔"In 1804 Emperor Franz assumed the title of Emperor of Austria for all the Erblande of the dynasty and for the other Lands, including Hungary. Thus Hungary formally became part of the Empire of Austria. The Court reassured the diet, however, that the assumption of the monarch’s new title did not in any sense affect the laws and the constitution of Hungary." 〕
The administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary (until 1848) remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the imperial government. The country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary (the Gubernium) - located in Pressburg and later in Pest - and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna.〔Éva H. Balázs: Hungary and the Habsburgs, 1765–1800: An Experiment in Enlightened Absolutism. p. 320.〕 The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, and were reinstated after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise in 1867.
Despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the personal union (from 1527), the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated and independent budget. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, and it was only after the Compromise of 1867 that Hungary obtained a separate budget.〔"Hungary" in the ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 11th ed., Vol. XIII, p. 900. 1911.〕 From 1527 (the creation of the monarchic personal union) to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories.〔Richard L. Rudolph: Banking and Industrialization in Austria-Hungary: The Role of Banks in the Industrialization of the Czech Crownlands, 1873–1914, Cambridge University Press, 2008 (page 17)〕 After 1867, the Austrian and Hungarian customs union agreement had to be renegotiated and stipulated every ten years. The agreements were renewed and signed by Vienna and Budapest at the end of every decade because both countries hoped to derive mutual economic benefit from the customs union. The Austrian Empire and Kingdom of Hungary contracted their foreign commercial treaties independently of each other.〔"Austria-Hungary" in the ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 11th ed. 1911.〕
Austria-Hungary was a great power but it contained a large number of ethnic groups that sought their own nation. It was ruled by a coalition of two powerful minorities, the Germans and the Hungarians. Stresses regarding nationalism were building up, and the severe shock of a poorly handled war caused the system to collapse.
Vienna served as the Monarchy's primary capital. The Cisleithanian (Austrian) part contained about 57 percent of the total population and the larger share of its economic resources, compared to the Hungarian part.
Following a decision of Franz Joseph I in 1868, the realm bore the official name Austro-Hungarian Monarchy/Realm ((ドイツ語:Österreichisch-Ungarisches Monarchie/Reich); (ハンガリー語:Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia/Birodalom)) in its international relations. It was often contracted to the Dual Monarchy in English, or simply referred to as Austria.〔"Austria" in the ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 9th ed., Vol. III. 1878.〕
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