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Anterior cingulate cortex
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Anterior cingulate cortex : ウィキペディア英語版
Anterior cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum. It consists of Brodmann areas 24, 32, and 33.
It appears to play a role in a wide variety of autonomic functions, such as regulating blood pressure and heart rate.
It is also involved in rational cognitive functions, such as reward anticipation, decision-making, empathy, impulse control,〔
〕 and emotion.
==Anatomy==

The anterior cingulate cortex can be divided anatomically based on cognitive (dorsal), and emotional (ventral) components. The dorsal part of the ACC is connected with the prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex as well as the motor system and the frontal eye fields making it a central station for processing top-down and bottom-up stimuli and assigning appropriate control to other areas in the brain. By contrast, the ventral part of the ACC is connected with the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, and anterior insula, and is involved in assessing the salience of emotion and motivational information. The ACC seems to be especially involved when effort is needed to carry out a task such as in early learning and problem-solving.
On a cellular level, the ACC is unique in its abundance of specialized neurons called spindle cells. These cells are a relatively recent occurrence in evolutionary terms (found only in humans and other great apes, cetaceans, and elephants) and contribute to this brain region's emphasis on addressing difficult problems, as well as the pathologies related to the ACC.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
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