Anglican (or English) chant is a way to sing unmetrical texts, including psalms and canticles from the Holy Bible, by matching the natural speech-rhythm of the words to the notes of a simple harmonized melody. Today, this type of chant is sung in Anglican and Episcopal churches, as well as Roman Catholic,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Psalm 96 Anglican Chant )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Music )〕 Lutheran,〔Mayes, Benjamin T.G., English Chant Psalter (NKJ) (Ft. Wayne, Indiana: Concordia Theological Seminary Press, 2002), http://www.librarything.com/work/6011459.〕〔 (Te Deum〕 Presbyterian, and Reformed churches. Within Anglican and Episcopal churches, Anglican chant was previously in more widespread use but today is sung primarily in Anglican cathedrals and also in parish churches that have retained a choral liturgical tradition.
Anglican chant grew out of the plainchant tradition during the English Reformation. When singing a text in Anglican chant, the natural rhythm of the words as they would be spoken by a careful speaker governs how the music is fitted to the words. The majority of the words are freely and rhythmically chanted over the ''reciting notes'', which are found in the first, fourth, eighth, eleventh (etc.) bars of the chant and with the other notes of the music appropriately fitted to the words at the end of each half-verse. The rhythm is based on the natural cadence of speech. Thus, the length of each of these notes bears little relation to the normal musical value of a note such as a minim or semi-breve.
Anglican chant was well established by the 18th century. The earliest known examples are single chants, dating from the late 16th century, written by Thomas Tallis and his contemporaries, so it seems likely that Anglican chant was devised by them to provide musical settings for the English-language version of the psalter translated by Myles Coverdale, as published in the then new Book of Common Prayer. The earliest double chants are from about 1700.
The text is pointed for chanting by assigning each verse or phrase to a simple harmonised melody of 7, 14, 21 or 28 bars (known respectively as a single, double, triple or quadruple chant).
An example of a single chant is shown above. Below are the first four verses of the Magnificat, with the text coloured to show which words correspond to which notes in the music ("the chant").
:1. My soul doth ' magnify the ' Lord : And my spirit hath re'joiced in ' God my ' Saviour.
:2. For ' he hath re'garded : the ' lowliness ' of his ' handmaiden.
:3. For be'hold from ' henceforth : all gene ' rations shall ' call me ' blessed.
:4. For he that is mighty hath ' magnified ' me : and ' holy ' is his ' Name.
Various psalters have been published over the years, with each one showing how the chant is to be fitted to the words and each having its own variation on the precise rules for doing so. The rules used in the ''Parish Psalter'' (one of the more popular psalters, edited by Sydney Nicholson) are as follows:
* Each verse is sung to seven bars of music (the whole chant in the example above, though most chants are 14 bars = 2 verses long)
* The bar lines in the music correspond to inverted commas ("pointing marks") in the text.
* The double bar line in the music corresponds to the colon in the text.
* Where there is one note (a semibreve) to a bar, all the words for the corresponding part of the text are sung to that one note.
* Where there are two notes (two minims) to a bar, unless indicated otherwise all the words ''except the last syllable'' are sung to the first minim. The final syllable is sung to the second minim. Where more than the last syllable is to be sung to the second minim, a dot (·) (between words) or a hyphen (within a word) is used in the text to indicate where the note change should occur.
Other psalters use different notation; modern psalters such as the ''New St Paul's Cathedral Psalter'' (John Scott, 1997) have adopted the following convention:
* A vertical bar (|) is used to indicate a barline.
* Whenever there are 3 or more syllables in a bar containing two minims, a dot (·) or hyphen is used, even if the change of note is on the final syllable.
There are various additional rules which apply occasionally:
* Some chants have more complicated rhythms than the example above, generally in the form of a dotted minim and a crotchet (in any bar except the last of a quarter) or of two crotchets taking the place of a minim.
* When a minim in an internal bar (i.e. not the first or last bar of a quarter) is replaced by two crotchets, one of two things happens. If there is only one syllable, both notes are sung to it in quick succession. If there are two (or occasionally more) syllables, they are split as appropriate to smoothly match the rhythm of the words to the two notes.
* When an internal bar has a dotted rhythm, it is to be sung as above, excepting that the crotchet can be omitted from the music if the natural rhythm of the words and the sentiment of the words indicate that it is appropriate to do so.
* When the first bar of a quarter has a dotted minim and a crotchet, all syllables except the last are sung to the note of the dotted minim, with the crotchet being tucked in on the last syllable before the barline. If there is only one syllable, both notes are sung to it in quick succession with the subtle emphasis being on the first note.
* Sometimes the last bar of a quarter has two minims instead of the usual semibreve, in which case a dot/hyphen may be required after the last barline in the text: (e.g. even as ' though they ' were mine ' ene-mies.)
* Particularly in long psalms, changes of chant may be used to signal thematic shifts in the words. Psalm 119, which is the longest in the psalter, is generally sung with a change of chant after every 8 of its 176 verses, corresponding to the 22 stanzas of the original Hebrew text. However, it is never sung all at once, but spread over successive days.
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