| Alexander Borodin ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (, 12 November 1833 – 27 February 1887)〔Old Style dates 31 October 1833 – 15 February 1887.〕 was a Russian Romantic composer of Georgian origin, doctor and chemist. He was a member of the group of composers called The Five (or "The Mighty Handful"), who were dedicated to producing a specifically Russian kind of art music.〔Abraham, Gerald. ''Borodin: the Composer and his Music''. London, 1927〕〔Dianin, Sergei Aleksandrovich. ''Borodin''. London, New York, Oxford University Press, 1963〕〔Oldani, Robert, William. "Borodin, Aleksandr Porfir′yevich," (Grove Music Online ) (Accessed 27 January 2006, subscription required)〕 He is best known for his symphonies, his two string quartets, ''In the Steppes of Central Asia'' and his opera ''Prince Igor''. Music from ''Prince Igor'' and his string quartets was later adapted for the US musical ''Kismet''.
He was a notable advocate of women's rights and a proponent of education in Russia and was a founder of the School of Medicine for Women in St. Petersburg.
==Life and profession==
Borodin was born in Saint Petersburg, the illegitimate son of a Georgian noble, Luka Gedevanishvili, and a 24-year-old Russian woman, Evdokia Konstantinovna Antonova. The nobleman had him registered as the son of one of his serfs, Porfiry Borodin.〔(8Notes website )〕 As a boy he received a good education, including piano lessons. In 1850 he entered the Medical–Surgical Academy in St Petersburg, which was later home to Ivan Pavlov, and pursued a career in chemistry. On graduation he spent a year as surgeon in a military hospital, followed by three years of advanced scientific study in western Europe.
In 1862 Borodin returned to St Petersburg to take up a professorial chair in chemistry at the Imperial Medical-Surgical Academy〔D. E. Lewis, ''Early Russian Organic Chemists and Their Legacy''〕 and spent the remainder of his scientific career in research, lecturing and overseeing the education of others. Eventually, he managed to establish medical courses for women (1872).
He began taking lessons in composition from Mily Balakirev in 1862. He married Ekaterina Protopopova, a pianist, in 1863, and had at least one daughter, named Gania. Music remained a secondary vocation for Borodin outside his main career as a chemist and physician. He suffered poor health, having overcome cholera and several minor heart attacks. He died suddenly during a ball at the Academy, and was interred in Tikhvin Cemetery at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in Saint Petersburg.
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