1952 Winter Olympics
| 1952 Winter Olympics ： ウィキペディア英語版|
The 1952 Winter Olympics (Norwegian: ''Vinter-OL 1952''), officially known as the VI Olympic Winter Games (French: Les ''VIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver''), took place in Oslo, Norway, from 14 to 25 February. Discussions about Oslo hosting the Winter Olympic Games began as early as 1935; the city wanted to host the 1948 Games, but World War II made that impossible. Instead, Oslo won the right to host the 1952 Games in a contest that included Cortina d'Ampezzo in Italy and Lake Placid in the United States. All of the venues were in Oslo's metropolitan area except for the alpine skiing events, which were held at Norefjell, from the capital. A new hotel was built for the press and dignitaries, along with three dormitories to house athletes and coaches, creating the first modern athlete's village. The city of Oslo bore the financial burden of hosting the Games in return for the revenue they generated.
The Games attracted 694 athletes representing 30 countries, who participated in four sports and 22 events.〔(【引用サイトリンク】publisher=International Olympic Committee )〕 Japan and Germany made their returns to winter Olympic competition, after being forced to miss the 1948 Games in the aftermath of World War II. Germany was represented solely by West German athletes because East Germany declined to compete as a unified team. Portugal and New Zealand made their Winter Olympic debuts, and for the first time women were allowed to compete in cross-country skiing.
Norwegian truck driver Hjalmar Andersen won three out of four speed skating events to become the most decorated athlete at the Games. Germany resumed its former prominence in bobsleigh, with wins in the four- and two-man events. Dick Button of the United States performed the first triple jump in international competition to claim his second consecutive men's figure skating Olympic title. The 1952 Games featured one demonstration sport, bandy, but only three Nordic countries competed in the tournament. Norway dominated the overall medal count with 16 medals, seven of them gold. The Games closed with the presentation of a flag that would be passed from one Winter Olympics host city to the next. The flag, which became known as the "Oslo flag", has been displayed in the host city during each subsequent Winter Games.
==Host city selection==
Oslo had unsuccessfully bid to host the 1936 Winter Olympics, losing to Germany, which had hosted the 1936 Summer Olympics. At that time, the nation that hosted the Summer Olympics also hosted the Winter Olympics.〔Findling and Pelle (1996), p. 252〕 After the 1936 Games, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) decided to award the Winter and Summer Games to different countries, but the Games were suspended during World War II. London hosted the first post-war Games, the 1948 Summer Olympics, and recommended Oslo as the host city for the 1948 Winter Games, but the city council declined.〔 Instead, the 1948 Winter Olympics were held in St. Moritz, Switzerland.〔(【引用サイトリンク】publisher=International Olympic Committee )〕
Norwegians were undecided about hosting a Winter Olympics.〔Klausen (1999), p. 28〕 Culturally, they were opposed to competitive winter sports, particularly skiing events, despite the success of Norwegian athletes at previous Winter Games.〔Klausen (1999), pp. 28–29〕 But the organizers believed the 1952 Games could be an opportunity to promote national unity and to show the world that Norway had recovered from the war.〔Klausen (1999), p. 29〕 Vying with Oslo for the right to host the Games were Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy, and Lake Placid, United States.〔 The IOC voted to award the 1952 Winter Games to Oslo on 21 June 1947 at the 40th IOC Session in Stockholm, Sweden.〔Organising Committee for the VI Winter Olympic Games (1952), p. 20〕 Later, Cortina d'Ampezzo was awarded the 1956 Games, and Lake Placid—which had hosted the 1932 Winter Olympics—was chosen to host the 1980 Winter Games. Norway became the first Scandinavian country to host a Winter Olympics,〔 and the 1952 Winter Games were the first to be held in a nation's capital.〔
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