Words near each other
・ "O" Is for Outlaw
・ "O"-Jung.Ban.Hap.
・ "Ode-to-Napoleon" hexachord
・ "Oh Yeah!" Live
・ "Our Contemporary" regional art exhibition (Leningrad, 1975)
・ "P" Is for Peril
・ "Pimpernel" Smith
・ "Polish death camp" controversy
・ "Pro knigi" ("About books")
・ "Prosopa" Greek Television Awards
・ "Pussy Cats" Starring the Walkmen
・ "Q" Is for Quarry
・ "R" Is for Ricochet
・ "R" The King (2016 film)
・ "Rags" Ragland
・ ! (album)
・ ! (disambiguation)
・ !!
・ !!!
・ !!! (album)
・ !!Destroy-Oh-Boy!!
・ !Action Pact!
・ !Arriba! La Pachanga
・ !Hero
・ !Hero (album)
・ !Kung language
・ !Oka Tokat
・ !PAUS3
・ !T.O.O.H.!
・ !Women Art Revolution

Dictionary Lists
翻訳と辞書 辞書検索 [ 開発暫定版 ]
スポンサード リンク

1948 Arab-Israeli War : ウィキペディア英語版
1948 Arab–Israeli War

Holy War Army
22px Arab Liberation Army
Foreign volunteers:
Muslim Brotherhood

Sudan〔Morris, 2008, p. 332.〕

David Ben-Gurion


Yisrael Galili

Yaakov Dori

Yigael Yadin

Mickey Marcus

Yigal Allon

Yitzhak Rabin

David Shaltiel

Moshe Dayan

Shimon Avidan

Azzam Pasha

King Farouk I

King Abdallah

Muzahim al-Pachachi

Husni al-Za'im

Haj Amin al-Husseini


Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi

Muhammad Naguib

John Bagot Glubb

Habis al-Majali

Hasan Salama

Fawzi al-Qawuqji
|strength1=Israel: 29,677 (initially)
117,500 (finally)
|strength2=Egypt: 10,000 initially, rising to 20,000
Iraq: 3,000 initially, rising to 15,000–18,000
Syria: 2,500–5,000
Transjordan: 8,000–12,000
Lebanon: 1,000〔Pollack, 2004; Sadeh, 1997〕
Saudi Arabia: 800–1,200 (Egyptian command)
Yemen: 300
Arab Liberation Army: 3,500–6,000.
13,000 (initial)
51,100 (minimal)
63,500 (maximum)
|casualties1=6,373 killed (about 4,000 fighters and 2,400 civilians)〔
|casualties2=''Arab armies:''
3,700-7,000 killed
''Palestinian Arabs:''
3,000-13,000 killed (both fighters and civilians)〔〔Morris 2008, pp. 404–406.〕
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War or the First Arab–Israeli War was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states. In Hebrew it is known as The War of Independence ((ヘブライ語:מלחמת העצמאות), ''Milkhemet Ha'Atzma'ut'') or the War of Liberation ((ヘブライ語:מלחמת השחרור), ''Milkhemet HaShikhrur''). This war formed the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war, known in Arabic as The Nakba or Catastrophe ((アラビア語:النكبة), ''al-Nakba'').
There had been tension and conflict between the Arabs and the Jews, and between each of them and the British forces, ever since the 1917 Balfour Declaration and the 1920 creation of the British Mandate of Palestine. British policies dissatisfied both Arabs and Jews. The Arabs' opposition developed into the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, while the Jewish resistance developed into the Jewish insurgency in Palestine (1944–1947). In 1947 these ongoing tensions erupted into civil war, following the 29 November 1947 adoption of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine which planned to divide Palestine into three areas: an Arab state, a Jewish state and the Special International Regime for the cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem.
On 15 May 1948 the ongoing civil war transformed into an inter-state conflict between Israel and the Arab states, following the Israeli Declaration of Independence the previous day. A combined invasion by Egypt, Jordan and Syria, together with expeditionary forces from Iraq, entered Palestine - Jordan having declared privately to Yishuv emissaries on 2 May it would abide by a decision not to attack the Jewish state.〔
David Tal,''War in Palestine, 1948: Israeli and Arab Strategy and Diplomacy,'' p.153.〕 The invading forces took control of the Arab areas and immediately attacked Israeli forces and several Jewish settlements.〔Benny Morris (2008), p.401.
Zeev Maoz, ''Defending the Holy Land,'' University of Michigan Press, 2009 p.4:'A combined invasion of a Jordanian and Egyptian army started . . . The Syrian and the Lebanese armies engaged in a token effort but did not stage a major attack on the Jewish state.'

The 10 months of fighting, interrupted by several truce periods, took place mostly on the former territory of the British Mandate and for a short time also in the Sinai Peninsula and southern Lebanon.〔
Rogan and Shlaim 2007 p. 99.〕
As a result of the war the State of Israel retained the area that the UN General Assembly Resolution 181 had recommended for the proposed Jewish state as well as almost 60% of the area of Arab state proposed by the 1948 Partition Plan.〔Cragg 1997 pp. 57, 116.
〕 including the Jaffa, Lydda and Ramle area, Galilee, some parts of the Negev, a wide strip along the Tel-Aviv-Jerusalem road, West Jerusalem, and some territories in the West Bank. Transjordan took control of the remainder of the former British mandate, which it annexed, and the Egyptian military took control of the Gaza Strip. At the Jericho Conference on 1 December 1948, 2,000 Palestinian delegates called for unification of Palestine & Transjordan as a step toward full Arab unity." 〔Benvenisti, Meron (1996), City of Stone: The Hidden History of Jerusalem, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-20521-9. 27〕 No state was created for the Palestinian Arabs.
The conflict triggered significant demographic change throughout the Middle East. Around 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from the area that became Israel and they became Palestinian refugees.〔 In the three years following the war, about 700,000 Jews immigrated to Israel with many of them having been expelled from their previous countries of residence in the Middle East.〔Morris, 2001, pages 259 - 260.〕

Following World War II, the surrounding Arab nations were emerging from mandatory rule. Transjordan, under the Hashemite ruler Abdullah I, gained independence from Britain in 1946 and was called Jordan in 1949, but it remained under heavy British influence. Egypt gained nominal independence in 1922, but Britain continued to exert a strong influence on the country until Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 which limited Britain’s presence to a garrison of troops on the Suez Canal until 1945. Lebanon became an independent state in 1943, but French troops would not withdraw until 1946, the same year that Syria won its independence from France.
In 1945, at British prompting, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan, and Yemen formed the Arab League to coordinate policy between the Arab states. Iraq and Transjordan coordinated policies closely, signing a mutual defence treaty, while Egypt, Syria, and Saudi Arabia feared that Transjordan would annex part or all of Palestine, and use it as a steppingstone to attack or undermine Syria, Lebanon, and the Hijaz.〔Morris, 2008, pp. 66-69〕
On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of a plan to partition the British Mandate of Palestine into two states, one Arab and one Jewish, and the City of Jerusalem.〔(UNITED NATIONS: General Assembly: A/RES/181(II): 29 November 1947: ''Resolution 181 (II). Future government of Palestine''. )〕
The General Assembly resolution on Partition was greeted with overwhelming joy in Jewish communities and widespread outrage in the Arab world. In Palestine, violence erupted almost immediately, feeding into a spiral of reprisals and counter-reprisals. The British refrained from intervening as tensions boiled over into a low-level conflict that quickly escalated into a full-scale civil war.〔Greg Cashman, Leonard C. Robinson, (''An Introduction to the Causes of War: Patterns of Interstate Conflict from World War 1 to Iraq,'' ) Rowman & Littlefield 2007 p.165.〕〔Benjamin Grob-Fitzgibbon,(''Imperial Endgame: Britain's Dirty Wars and the End of Empire,'' ) Palgrave/Macmillan 2011 p.57〕〔Ilan Pappé (2000), p. 111〕〔Morris 2008, p. 76〕〔Efraïm Karsh (2002), p. 30〕〔Benny Morris (2003), p. 101〕
From January onwards, operations became increasingly militarized, with the intervention of a number of Arab Liberation Army regiments inside Palestine, each active in a variety of distinct sectors around the different coastal towns. They consolidated their presence in Galilee and Samaria.〔Yoav Gelber (2006), pp. 51–56〕 Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni came from Egypt with several hundred men of the Army of the Holy War. Having recruited a few thousand volunteers, al-Husayni organized the blockade of the 100,000 Jewish residents of Jerusalem.〔Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), chap. 7, pp. 131–153〕 To counter this, the Yishuv authorities tried to supply the city with convoys of up to 100 armoured vehicles, but the operation became more and more impractical as the number of casualties in the relief convoys surged. By March, Al-Hussayni's tactic had paid off. Almost all of Haganah's armoured vehicles had been destroyed, the blockade was in full operation, and hundreds of Haganah members who had tried to bring supplies into the city were killed.〔Benny Morris (2003), p. 163〕 The situation for those who dwelt in the Jewish settlements in the highly isolated Negev and North of Galilee was even more critical.
While the Jewish population had received strict orders requiring them to hold their ground everywhere at all costs,〔Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 163〕 the Arab population was more affected by the general conditions of insecurity to which the country was exposed. Up to 100,000 Arabs, from the urban upper and middle classes in Haifa, Jaffa and Jerusalem, or Jewish-dominated areas, evacuated abroad or to Arab centres eastwards.〔Benny Morris (2003), p. 67〕
This situation caused the US to withdraw their support for the Partition plan, thus encouraging the Arab League to believe that the Palestinian Arabs, reinforced by the Arab Liberation Army, could put an end to the plan for partition. The British, on the other hand, decided on 7 February 1948, to support the annexation of the Arab part of Palestine by Transjordan.〔Henry Laurens (2005), p. 83〕
Although a certain level of doubt took hold among Yishuv supporters, their apparent defeats were due more to their wait-and-see policy than to weakness. David Ben-Gurion reorganized Haganah and made conscription obligatory. Every Jewish man and woman in the country had to receive military training. Thanks to funds raised by Golda Meir from sympathisers in the United States, and Stalin's decision to support the Zionist cause, the Jewish representatives of Palestine were able to sign very important armament contracts in the East. Other Haganah agents recuperated stockpiles from the Second World War, which helped improve the army's equipment and logistics. Operation Balak allowed arms and other equipment to be transported for the first time by the end of March.
Ben-Gurion invested Yigael Yadin with the responsibility to come up with a plan of offense whose timing was related to the foreseeable evacuation of British forces. This strategy, called Plan Dalet, was readied by March and implemented towards the end of April.〔David Tal, ''War in Palestine, 1948: Israeli and Arab Strategy and Diplomacy,'' Routledge 2004 p.89.〕 A separate plan, Operation Nachshon, was devised to lift the siege of Jerusalem.〔 1500 men from Haganah's Givati brigade and Palmach's Harel brigade conducted sorties to free up the route to the city between 5 and 20 April. Both sides acted offensively in defiance of the Partition Plan, which foresaw Jerusalem as a corpus separatum, under neither Jewish nor Arab jurisdiction. The Arabs did not accept the Plan, while the Jews were determined to oppose the internationalization of the city, and secure it as part of the Jewish state.〔David Tal, pp.89-90.〕 The operation was successful, and enough foodstuffs to last two months were trucked into to Jerusalem for distribution to the Jewish population.〔Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), pp. 369–381〕 The success of the operation was assisted by the death of al-Hasayni in combat. During this time, and independently of Haganah or the framework of Plan Dalet, irregular fighters from Irgun and Lehi formations massacred a substantial number of Arabs at Deir Yassin, an event that, though publicly deplored and criticized by the principal Jewish authorities, had a deep impact on the morale of the Arab population and contributed to generate the exode of the Arab population.
At the same time, the first large-scale operation of the Arab Liberation Army ended in a debacle, having been roundly defeated at Mishmar HaEmek,〔Benny Morris (2003), pp. 242–243〕 coinciding with the loss of their Druze allies through defection.〔Benny Morris (2003), p. 242〕
Within the framework of the establishment of Jewish territorial continuity foreseen by Plan Dalet, the forces of Haganah, Palmach and Irgun intended to conquer mixed zones. The Palestinian Arab society was shaken. Tiberias, Haifa, Safed, Beisan, Jaffa and Acre fell, resulting in the flight of more than 250,000 Palestinian Arabs.〔Henry Laurens (2005), pp. 85–86〕
The British had, at that time, essentially withdrawn their troops. The situation pushed the leaders of the neighbouring Arab states to intervene, but their preparation was not finalized, and they could not assemble sufficient forces to turn the tide of the war. The majority of Palestinian Arab hopes lay with the Arab Legion of Transjordan's monarch, King Abdullah I, but he had no intention of creating a Palestinian Arab-run state, since he hoped to annexe as much of the territory of the British Mandate for Palestine as he could. He was playing a double-game, being just as much in contact with the Jewish authorities as with the Arab League.
In preparation for the offensive, Haganah successfully launched Operations YiftahBenny Morris (2003), pp. 248–252〕 and Ben-'Ami〔Benny Morris (2003), pp. 252–254〕 to secure the Jewish settlements of Galilee, and Operation Kilshon, which created a united front around Jerusalem. The inconclusive meeting between Golda Meir and Abdullah I, followed by the Kfar Etzion massacre on 13 May by the Arab Legion led to predictions that the battle for Jerusalem would be merciless.
On 14 May 1948, David Ben-Gurion declared the establishment of the State of Israel and the 1948 Palestine war entered its second phase with the intervention of the Arab state armies and the beginning of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
ウィキペディアで「1948 Arab–Israeli War」の詳細全文を読む

スポンサード リンク
翻訳と辞書 : 翻訳のためのインターネットリソース

Copyright(C) kotoba.ne.jp 1997-2016. All Rights Reserved.