The $1,000 genome refers to an era of predictive and personalized medicine during which the cost of full genome sequencing an individual or patient costs roughly USD $1,000. It is also the title of a book by British science writer and founding editor of Nature Genetics, Kevin Davies.〔Kevin Davies. ''The $1,000 Genome.'' (New York: Free Press, 2010). ISBN 1-4165-6959-6〕
== History ==
The “$1,000 genome” catchphrase was first publicly recorded in December 2001 at a scientific retreat to discuss the future of biomedical research following publication of the first draft of the HGP, convened by the National Human Genome Research Institute at Airlie House in Virginia.〔(Beyond the Beginning: The Future of Genomics. Meeting webcast. http://www.genome.gov/10001294 ).〕 The phrase neatly highlighted the chasm between the actual cost of the Human Genome Project, estimated at $2.7 billion over a decade, and the benchmark for routine, affordable personal genome sequencing.
On 2 October 2002, Craig Venter introduced the opening session of GSAC (The Genome Sequencing and Analysis Conference) at the Hynes Convention Center in Boston: “The Future of Sequencing: Advancing Towards the $1,000 Genome.” Speakers included George M. Church and executives from 454 Life Sciences, Solexa, U.S. Genomics, VisiGen and Amersham plc.〔Sylvia Pagan Westphal. ("Race for the $1000 genome is on." ''New Scientist'' 12 October 2002 ).〕〔Mark D. Uehling. ("Wanted: The $1000 Genome." ''Bio-IT World'' November 2002 ).〕 In 2003, Venter announced that his foundation would earmark $500,000 for a breakthrough leading to the $1,000 genome.〔("Venter raises stakes for $1,000 genome prize." ''Bio-IT World'' October 2005 ).〕 That sum was subsequently rolled into the Archon X Prize.
In October 2004, NHGRI introduced the first in a series of '$1,000 Genome' grants designed to advance "the development of breakthrough technologies that will enable a human-sized genome to be sequenced for $1,000 or less."〔NIH press release. ("NHGRI seeks next generation of sequencing technologies." 14 October 2004 ).〕
In a January 2006 article in Scientific American making the case for the Personal Genome Project, George M. Church wrote
:“The ‘$1,000 genome’ has become shorthand for the promise of DNA-sequencing capability made so affordable that individuals might think the once-in-a-lifetime expenditure to have a full personal genome sequence read to a disk for doctors to reference is worthwhile.”:
In 2007, the journal Nature Genetics invited dozens of scientists to respond to its ‘(Question of the Year )’:
:“The sequencing of the equivalent of an entire human genome for $1,000 has been announced as a goal for the genetics community... What would you do if ($1,000 genome was ) available immediately?”:〔Question of the Year. ''Nature Genetics''. http://www.nature.com/ng/qoty/index.html〕
In May 2007, during a ceremony held at Baylor College of Medicine, 454 Life Sciences founder Jonathan Rothberg presented James D. Watson with a digital copy of his personal genome sequence on a portable hard drive. Rothberg estimated the cost of the sequence—the first personal genome produced using a next-generation sequencing platform—at $1 million.〔BCM press release. ("Nobel laureate James Watson receives personal genome in ceremony at Baylor College of Medicine." 31 May 2007 ).〕 Watson's genome sequence was published in 2008.
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